Household appliances hardware accessories are suitable for pollution prevention technology of electroplating lines in metal surface treatment operations. As described in the overview of the metal surface treatment industry for safe accessories, power tool accessory plating lines are part of the metal surface treatment in which the metal is applied to the substrate.
For example, general pollution prevention technologies for electroplating solutions include housekeeping, monitoring, additives, equipment modification, and on-site recycling and recycling. The next section will introduce the general problems of cyanide-based electroplating anti-pollution. The next seven sections cover pollution prevention options for plating specific metals such as brass, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, precious metals and zinc. The following sections describe other types of electroplating, including electroless plating, aluminum plating, chemical electrical conversion, etc.
Electroplating solution general pollution prevention technology
Common pollution prevention measures provide some common pollution prevention techniques for all types of metal surface treatment operations. These general techniques can be applied to electroplating lines in many ways. The following are some specific applications of these techniques in electroplating baths.
Keeping the plating area clean and preventing foreign matter from entering or remaining can extend the life of the bathtub. Companies can use many simple and inexpensive technologies to reduce pollution in process tanks. The parts that fall off the shelf should be removed quickly to reduce contamination. The operator should keep the rack clean and free from contamination. Enterprises should avoid using broken or broken racks, because they will increase the amount of process solution dragged into the washing process, thereby increasing the generation of sludge. Other general management methods include the use of corrosion-resistant tanks and equipment to protect the anode rods from corrosion, and filtering the incoming air to reduce air pollutants. The clean process area also makes it easier to detect problems such as leaking tanks or pipes. For more information on these technologies, please refer to common pollution prevention measures.
Correct control of the operating parameters of the plating bath can make the quality of the workpiece more consistent and extend the life of the plating bath. The strategy is simple: determine key operating parameters and keep them within acceptable limits. The first step in the process is to determine the operating parameters of the process. The next step is to ensure that bath chemistry is regularly monitored, which is critical to determine the appropriate amount of chemicals added to maintain effective operating parameters. For many solutions, simple field test kits are available. It is important to determine the operating parameters on the basis of a single electroplating line because suppliers sometimes set concentration specifications to be higher than those required for effective operation. Higher concentration means more towing and waste generation. Many electroplating facilities rely heavily on the operating parameters provided by suppliers. In some cases, in addition to the daily analysis performed at the facility, the store also sends samples to its suppliers every month. The following sections describe the operating parameters that the facility should establish and how to determine these values.
Working temperature of treatment bath
Elevated bath temperature will reduce the viscosity of the plating solution, which can be discharged from the workpiece faster and reduce the amount of solution dragged into the subsequent bath. However, operators should avoid using very high temperatures because many additives will decompose at high temperatures and the accumulation of carbonate in the cyanide solution will increase. Too high temperature will also cause the process solution to dry onto the workpiece during the removal process, increasing drag, water usage and labor costs.
Higher operating temperatures also increase the evaporation rate of the process solution. The facility can take advantage of the increased evaporation rate by using the solution from the production line flush tank to replenish the process tank and maintain an appropriate chemical balance. This replenishment reduces waste water and restores drag, while maintaining a stable plating solution. When operating the plating solution at higher temperatures, facilities may consider using deionized water because deionized water will minimise the accumulation of natural contaminants in the process bath. Increasing the operating temperature will also increase energy costs.
High process bath temperature working temperature
Reduce the amount of towing losses
Allows use of lower solution concentrations
Increase energy costs
Increase the amount of evaporation because more water is needed to replenish the process bath
Due to high emissions from process baths (eg cyanide baths), worker exposure may increase
Plating solution concentration
The facility should identify relatively low chemical concentrations that can be used to obtain high-quality finishes. If the production line is operated at a higher temperature, a lower concentration can be used to obtain results equivalent to a higher concentration at a lower temperature. Generally, the greater the concentration of chemicals in the solution, the greater the viscosity and drag. As a result, the film adhered to the workpiece during removal from the processing bath is thicker and will not be quickly discharged back into the processing bath. Reducing the concentration of the plating solution can improve the ability of the process solution to be effectively discharged from the workpiece.
Many chemical product manufacturers recommend operating concentrations higher than necessary. To determine the lower possible process bath concentration, the factory should mix a new process bath at the median recommended concentration. As the process tank is replenished, the operator can continue to reduce the chemical concentration until the product quality begins to deteriorate. Alternatively, the operator can mix the new bath at a low concentration and gradually increase the concentration until the bath is sufficiently cleaned, etched or plated. The facility can use freshly cleaned process baths with lower concentrations than used baths. Cosmetics can be added to the used bath, gradually increasing the concentration to maintain effective operation.
Lower plating solution concentration
Reduce towing losses
Reduce the use and cost of chemicals
Reduce sludge production rate
Reduce tolerance to impurities
If the contract specification requires a certain concentration, it may not be an option
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