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Structure and working principle of die casting machine
- 2019-06-20-

0010010 nbsp; 0010010 nbsp; 0010010 nbsp; 0010010 nbsp; 0010010 nbsp; 0010010 nbsp; The die-casting machine is under pressure A series of industrial casting machines where molten metal is hydraulically injected into the mold for cooling and forming, and after the mold is opened, solid metal castings are obtained. In this article, the editor of introduces its structure and working principle. Let's take a look!

Structure of die casting machine:

From the overall structure: column frame, frame, injection, hydraulic, electrical, lubrication, cooling, safety

From the function of the whole machine: mold clamping mechanism, injection mechanism, hydraulic transmission, electrical control, safety protection

Clamping mechanism:

Function: Mainly realize the action of closing and opening the mold, locking the mold, and ejecting the product

1, composition

(1) Three plates: dynamic seat plate, fixed seat plate, tail plate

(1) Corinth: Crankshaft mechanism: long hinge, small hinge, hook hinge, and connected to the dynamic seat plate, tail plate and mold opening hydraulic cylinder

(2) Ejection mechanism: ejection hydraulic cylinder, ejector pin, fixed on movable seat plate

(3) Mold adjustment mechanism: mold adjustment motor, gear assembly, fixed on the tail plate

(4) Lubrication system: toggle lubrication pump, oil drain, oil pipe, flow divider

2, working characteristics

(1) toggle mechanism

A. Boosting effect Through the toggle connecting rod system, the thrust of the clamping hydraulic cylinder can be enlarged by 16 ~ 26 times, so as to reduce fuel consumption, reduce the diameter of the clamping hydraulic cylinder, reduce the power of the pump Achieve the same power.

B. Variable speed closing and opening mold movement can be achieved: during the mold exit process, the moving speed of the movable mold seat plate quickly rises from zero to a relatively large speed, and then gradually slows down, with the extension of the elbow until the end, the mold closing speed becomes zero , And enter the self-locking state.

C. When the mold clamping is terminated, the thrust can be removed: when the mold clamping is tight and the toggle is extended in a straight line, it will lock itself. At this time, the thrust of the clamping hydraulic cylinder can be removed. The mold clamping system is still in a tight state.

(2) 0010010 nbsp; ejection mechanism: After the machine is opened, the ejection movement of the push rod and ejector pin is realized by the relative movement of the ejector cylinder piston rod. The ejection force, ejection speed, and ejection time can be adjusted by the hydraulic system, and dual hydraulic cylinders can be used to make the push rod to be evenly stressed, to move smoothly, and to make the distribution of ejection pin holes more reasonable.

(3) Mold adjustment mechanism: the gear assembly is driven by the mold adjustment motor, so that the tail plate and the movable template of the clamping column frame move axially along the tie rod, so as to achieve the expansion or reduction of the distance between the dynamic setting seat plates, parameters See instructions.

(4) Lubrication system: In order to reduce sports wear, proper lubricant must be maintained on sports surfaces. And to achieve regular and quantitative lubrication, at the same time, select the lubrication pump to achieve automatic lubrication.

(5) Injection mechanism:

Function: The metal is hydraulically filled into the mold cavity for filling.

Composition: injection hydraulic cylinder assembly, feed barrel, hammer head assembly, fast injection accumulator assembly, pressurized accumulator assembly.

(6) Hydraulic transmission system

Function: Propagating power through various hydraulic components (power components, actuators, control components, auxiliary components, working medium) and circuits, so as to realize various actions

Composition: ①Hydraulic system composition

Power component-hydraulic pump

Actuator-hydraulic cylinder / hydraulic motor, respectively to achieve linear and rotary motion

Control elements-control valves (direction, pressure, flow valves, etc.), control and adjust the flow direction, pressure and flow of oil in the hydraulic system to meet the requirements of actuator movement.

Auxiliary components-oil tank, filter, accumulator, heat exchanger, pressure gauge, pipe fittings, sealing device, etc.

Working medium-hydraulic oil

②Composition of hydraulic system of die casting machine:

Fuel tank, hydraulic pump, closed mold hydraulic cylinder, ejector hydraulic cylinder, injection hydraulic cylinder, mold adjustment hydraulic motor, hydraulic control element, hydraulic accumulator, filter, etc.

③Hydraulic accumulator

A. The function is used to store a certain amount of liquid, and it is given when needed to supplement the hydraulic oil of the injection mechanism. Increase the dynamic pressure and speed.

B. Scope of application: suitable for large volume and large flow systems, the temperature is between-53 ℃ ~ 121 ℃.

C. Common categories: piston type, air bag type


A. The function is to filter out impurities, reduce pollution to an allowable level, and ensure the normal operation of the system.

B. Common categories: mesh type, line gap type, paper core type, sintering type (net type for die casting machine)

⑤ Fuel tank

A. It is used to store oil, ensure that the hydraulic system is full and working medium, and at the same time has heat dissipation, so that the air infiltrated into the oil escapes and deposits dirt.

B. Die-casting machine oil tank structure: integral type: composed of the main oil tank, the fuel tank at the beating end, and the oil return tank, connected by a pipe to form an integrated body

⑥ Air filter A, which filters hydraulic oil to prevent impurities from entering the tank, and at the same time, has a ventilation function to balance the liquid level fluctuations

B. Air filter for common oil of die casting machine

(7) Security protection

①Function to ensure safe production and prevent accidents

②Composition: injection area protection, mold clamping area protection, safety control system, emergency stop safety protection

③Protection composition of injection area, front and back safety doors, moving mold base plate cover, flying material baffle. Prevent metal splash during injection

④Molding area protection composition, front and back safety doors, movable mold seat cover, tail cover, elbow rear cover, elbow front cover. Prevent accidental injuries when bending elbows and form pins.

⑤The safety control system consists of front and rear safety door control systems, which are controlled by Jiji and PLC respectively

⑥ Emergency stop safety protection: set emergency stop switch, and set display and alarm

(8) Electrical control

①Composition: motor, PLC control system, various electrical components, electrical circuits

②Function: Provide power for the machine and ensure that the machine works according to the predetermined pressure, speed, temperature and time.

③The working principle and hydraulic working principle can be analyzed according to the electrical diagram of the machine.

Working principle of die casting machine:

①When the slow injection movement in the stage starts, the hydraulic oil of the system enters the C 2 cavity through the integrated circuit board, and then enters the C {{via the {{{{{2}}}} 2}} cavity, thereby pushing the injection piston 2 to the left to achieve slow injection.

②The stage of rapid injection movement, when the injection punch exceeds the pouring port of the barrel, the accumulator 3 control valve opens, and the hydraulic oil passes through A {{1}}, A {{0 }} The mouth quickly enters the C {{{1}} cavity, the hydraulic oil volume of the C {{{1}} cavity increases rapidly, and the injection speed increases.

③ Stage boosting exercise

The metal liquid fills the cavity, and when it is about to terminate, the alloy liquid starts to solidify, at this time the advancement resistance of the punch increases, controlled by a computer program, the accumulator 4 control valve is opened, and A {{{{ 8}}}} Quickly enter the C {{2}} cavity, thereby pushing the booster piston {{3}} and the piston rod 6 to the left quickly. When the piston rod 6 and the inner and outer cones of the floating piston 7 are engaged, A {{2}} is cut off, so that C 1 forms a closed cavity, pressurizing the piston, piston The push of the rod and floating piston and the pressure of the C 1 and C {{{1}} chambers together give the piston {{1}} a boosting effect.

④ The policies of slow speed, fast speed and supercharge time can be adjusted through the control oil valve of the oil circuit board.